Russia Making Moves Affecting the Arctic’s Hydrocarbon Future

Russia Making Moves Affecting the Arctic’s Hydrocarbon Future

In October 2020, President Vladimir Putin formally adopted the “Strategy for the Development of the Russian Arctic Zone and Provision of National Security Through 2035.” The strategy gives particular significance to Murmansk Oblast, emphasizing a broad range of complex and multifaceted transformative measures targeting this province.  

Murmansk has long been the Russian Federation’s most prioritized Arctic entity. In 2007, an initiative named the “Arctic Bridge” envisaged creating a seasonal, 4,163-mile (6,700-km) maritime transport route between the Port of Murmansk and the Canadian Port of Churchill, in Manitoba.  

The strategy document lays out the plan for multiple geographies within the country: 

  • Chukotka will see a series of ambitious transit projects. These include the Pevek seaport and terminals (Chaun Bay), a transportation-logistical hub in the Provideniya port (Bering Sea) and a year-round sea terminal on the Arinay Lagoon (also on the Bering Sea). 
  • In the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YaNAO), the document envisages several ambitions, including an integrated system of transportation infrastructure, which includes measures in both seas (the Port of Sabetta with supporting facilities as well as the canal in the Gulf of Ob). 
  • In the NAO, the strategy calls for the development of strategic-level transportation infrastructure. Namely, the document emphasizes plans to build a deep-water, ice-free Indiga Seaport suitable for ships with a deadweight of at least 100,000 tons. The port, de facto a coastal cluster connected to locally based, resource-rich areas through a network of rail, pipeline and water transit, is expected to become a hub for exporting cargo from Russia to the United States, Canada, Europe, China and Asia-Pacific countries. The strategy also lays out plans to modernize local railroads (the Sosnogorsk-Ingida line) and highways (Narian-Mar-Usinsk). 

The Arctic is an extreme and dynamic region. It is increasingly receiving attention from global and regional powers for its natural resources, its utility as a sea line of communications connecting Europe, North America and Asia, and its political/military advantages.  

Decreasing sea ice is extending opportunities for global shipping, increasing the geostrategic importance of the region. Russia has been capitalizing on this opportunity by investing in an icebreaker fleet that vastly outnumbers those of all other Arctic nations combined. Although the Arctic will not surpass warmer shipping routes in traffic volume, there is a growing number of ships transiting between Asia and Europe via the NorthWest Passage (NWP) and the Norwegian Sea Route (NSR), the latter being the most robust northern shipping route.  

The Arctic is rapidly becoming a new theater of great power competition – both geo-economic and geostrategic. Russia has been attempting to expand its exclusive economic zones in the region and is conducting enforcement operations with internationally unrecognized authority in Arctic Seas. The Russian military has also been improving its capabilities to operate in the Arctic. Similarly, China, coveting Arctic shipping routes and potential resources, has been attempting to legitimize potential future Arctic claims by describing itself as a “near-Arctic” power. 

Eight countries, Canada, Denmark (including Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the U.S., have Arctic territory. Five countries, Canada, Denmark [Greenland], Norway, Russia and the U.S., have Arctic Ocean coastline. Of note, Russia has the most expansive Arctic territory of any of these countries. 

Russia officially designates a region of its own territory as the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation, which contains Russian maritime and terrestrial areas above or near the Arctic Circle. These include all or parts of “the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Oblasts, the Taimyr Peninsula in Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Nenetskiy, the Yamalo-Nenentskiy and the Chukotskiy Autonomous Okrugs, as well as lands and islands … and the internal maritime waters and territorial seas, adjacent to the northern coast of the Russian Federation.” 

Russia is by far the most capable Arctic competitor among the three superpowers. The Kremlin views the Arctic as critical to its overall national defense strategy. Consequently, the country is actively preparing its military forces to operate there, while simultaneously working to secure and exploit the region’s untapped resources. Russia hopes to control enough Arctic resources, particularly energy resources, to ensure national economic stability and growth while controlling all shipping near its coastline and maintaining sufficient military power to deter any aggressors crossing the Arctic. 

Climate change is also taking a toll on established Arctic infrastructure. Most Arctic infrastructure is built on permafrost in areas at risk for thawing in the near future. In Russia, a third of Arctic infrastructure could be severely damaged by thawing. However, growing interest in economic exploitation has stimulated infrastructure investment. Approximately 900 Arctic infrastructure development projects were in progress as of 2016, with $1 trillion in total expected investments through 2031.  

To access the Arctic seas, as of 2019, Russia developed a polar icebreaker fleet that outnumbered the rest of the world’s fleets combined. As Russia considers expanding this fleet, especially its nuclear icebreakers, that number is likely to continue to grow. Furthermore, Russia is modernizing ports along its Arctic coast to improve its capability to use the NSR.  

Russia maintains that its extensive Arctic capabilities give it additional rights and has claimed authority to regulate ships transiting international waters in the NSR. This policy has been protested by other nations that state it violates international laws, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS). However, UNCLOS, along with the Polar Code, may be inadequate for the unique Arctic environment. Ambiguities and inconsistencies between them have resulted in the Arctic nations enacting their own navigation laws and policies. 

A broad range of new Russian activities in the Arctic are now underway, which may be understandable from the Kremlin’s perspective but have unsettled other Arctic states and created a security dilemma. The extent to which the Sino-Russian cooperation will also develop a military dimension in the Arctic is another uncertainty. When Russia assumed the chair of the Arctic Council during the May 2021 ministerial meeting in Reykjavik, it signaled to all concerned that it would consider addressing the resulting conflict potential. 

Of the five Arctic Ocean coastal states, Russia will likely experience the greatest percentage access increases to its exclusive economic zone, followed by Greenland/Denmark, Norway, Canada and the U.S. Along the NSR, the July–October navigation season length averages 120, 113 and 103 days for PC3, PC6 and OW vessels, respectively, by late-century, with shorter seasons (but substantial increases) along the NWP and Trans-Polar Route.  

Primary Russian ports in the Arctic are Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dudinka, Varandei, Vitino and Kandalaskha. Upgrade and modernization investments are now underway in each of these ports. 

Statistics show that Murmansk Oblast is the biggest Arctic shipping hub. Located on the Koala peninsula at the coast of Barents Sea is the non-freezing port that can service any type of vessel. In the near future, it will face a major modernization process as a part of the Russian objective to develop industrial facilities along Koala Bay. In the same way that Norwegian and Icelandic shipping hubs are not only operating on ice-free NWP, this also creates possibilities to service the NSR when that is established. 

The Murmansk shipping hub is not the only Russian port playing a key role in Arctic marine shipping. The Port of Petropavlovsk at the coast of Kamchatka is to be developed as an eastern hub for the NSR. According to the newest Russian reports, the Port of Petropavlovsk is going to play a major international role because it will become the hub for all vessels operating the route. 

Among the many Russian initiatives, the Murmansk Transport Node is one of the most ambitious. This is the name of the project that Moscow has approved. It involves the integration of several distinct but interconnected elements: 

  • Reconstruction of a coal terminal with a total capacity of 9.6 million tons 
  • Construction of a container terminal with a total capacity of 1 million tons. TEUs 
  • Logistics center 

Kola Bay’s western shore will have two major facilities: 

  • Coal terminal with a total capacity of 20 million tons 
  • Oil terminal with a total capacity of 35 million tons 

Expanding and improving access into and out of the Port requires that the project proceed on multiple levels: 

  • Reconstruction of the main railway line that runs from Murmansk to St. Petersburg 
  • Construction of a new 18-mile (29-km) railway line and new railway station for Murmashi-Lavna, located on the Kola Bay’s western shore 
  • Construction of several new motorways 
  • Reconstruction of the Murmansk Airport 

Development of the Murmansk Sea Commercial Port is being undertaken in two phases: 

  • Phase 1 will be characterized by minimal throughput and deeper depths. Capacity growth of the first cargo district will increase from 6.4 to 12.9 million tons (coal). 
  • Phase 2 will be characterized by the extension of the port area and deeper depths, plus a dedicated coal complex. 
  • Alternatively, Phase 2 will be characterized by keeping the project within the existing port area and deeper depths. 

The northern coast of the Russian Federation has several deep-water ports that have been supported by the NSR Authority and a fleet of icebreakers for several decades. Murmansk is well known for being the largest deep-water port north of the Arctic Circle that is ice-free throughout the year.  

Murmansk also provides intermodal access to northern European and Asian industrial centers. In recent years, Russian Arctic ports in the Barents Sea, including Murmansk, have expanded significantly as offshore oil and ore production have increased in the region. Since 2004, more than €4.4 billion have been invested in improving Murmansk’s deep-water port facilities to include new oil, coal and container terminals, as well as expanded rail lines. 

Capacities of the Port of Murmansk are projected to increase to an annual 28.5 million tons by 2010 and 52 million tons by 2020. Other Russian Arctic ports along the NSR include Pevek, Tiksi, Igarka, Dudinka, Dikson, Vitino, Arkhangelsk and Novy. These ports are well-established and supported by the Russian icebreaker fleet, although many require long river transits to access.   

The Port of Varandey on the Pechora Sea coast is unique to the region. As oil production expands in the Russian Arctic, Lukoil, in cooperation with ConocoPhillips, has developed Varandey into a deep-water oil export terminal. The Varandey facility consists of an onshore tank farm with a total rated capacity of 2 million barrels (325,000 cubic meters) and an innovative, fixed, ice-resistant oil terminal 14 miles (23 km) offshore, with a height of more than 160 feet (49 meters).   

The terminal includes living quarters and a mooring cargo handling system with a jib and a helicopter platform; two underwater pipelines, connecting the onshore tank battery and the offshore oil terminal; and an oil metering station, auxiliary tanks, pumping station and power supply facilities. Sovkomflothas has one new 70,000-deadweight ton (DWT) ice-strengthened oil tanker in operation and two being built in South Korean shipyards to shuttle oil to Murmansk, as well as other locations in Europe and North America. 


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PIPE EXCHANGE PRIVACY POLICY

Last Updated: August 2019

 

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How We Store Your Information

Data Security

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Please remember that you play a valuable part in security as well. To the extent you have created an account on our Website, your password to access our site, which you select at registration, should never be shared with anyone and should be changed frequently.  After you have finished using our site, you should log off and exit your browser so no unauthorized persons can use our site with your name and account information.

Information Retention and Access to Personal Information. We’ll retain information for as long as your account is active or as needed to provide you the Services, to comply with applicable law, resolve disputes, and to enforce our agreements.   If your personally identifiable information changes, or if you no longer desire to use and access our Services, you may correct, update, delete/deactivate your information by emailing Pipe Exchange via the contact information listed below. Before Pipe Exchange is able to provide you with any information or correct any inaccuracies, however, we may ask you to verify your identity and to provide other details to help us to respond to your request. But please note: (1) there might be some latency in deleting this information from our servers and back-up storage; (2) we will not delete anonymized data and may continue to use it as describe in this Privacy Policy; and (3) we may retain information if necessary to comply with our legal, tax or accounting obligations, resolve disputes, manage security risks, or enforce our agreements. Even if you cease your use of the Services, we may retain certain information in order to meet our obligations.

Under California Civil Code Sections 1798.83-1798.84, California residents are entitled to ask us for a notice identifying the categories of personal information which we share with our affiliates and/or third parties for marketing purposes, and providing contact information for such affiliates and/or third parties.  If you are a California resident and would like a copy of this notice, please submit a written request to: privacy@pipexch.com

International Transfer of Information Collected

We are a global company, with customers around the world and it is important to note that the Services, and the Website, may be operated via servers situated in the United States and elsewhere. If you are located outside of the United States, please be aware that any information which you supply to Pipe Exchange (including, without limitation, personal information (e.g., your name, phone number, email address, etc.) may be transferred to, processed, and used in the United States and elsewhere. To provide you with the Services, you irrevocably and unconditionally consent that we may store, use, process, transfer and transmit such information in accordance with this Privacy Policy in the United States and locations around the world – including those outside your country which may provide different rules, regulations, and protections regarding privacy. Information may also be stored locally on the devices used to access the Services, which may be mobile.

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Changes to this Privacy Policy

From time to time, Pipe Exchange may change the terms of this Privacy Policy. Changes will take effect once they are posted online and by accessing and/or using the Website or Services after we make any such changes to this Privacy Policy, you are deemed to have accepted such changes.  If you do not agree with any of the amended terms, you must avoid any further use of the Website and/or Services offered by Pipe Exchange.

 

Inquiries or Concerns?

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PIPE EXCHANGE TERMS OF USE

Last updated: August 2019

Welcome to https://pipexch.com/Pipe Exchange (the “Website”). The Website is owned and operated by Pipe Exchange LLCPipe ExchangePipe Exchange including its related companies, affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively “Pipe Exchange,” “we,” “us,” “our”). We make the Website available to you, subject to the following Terms of Use (these “Terms of Use”). PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS OF USE CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE WEBSITE. By using the Website, you agree to these Terms of Use and agree they create a legally binding agreement between you and Pipe Exchange. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, you may not use the Website. These Terms of Use are effective unless and until terminated by Pipe Exchange.

Minors are not authorized to access or use the Website for any purpose.

CHANGES TO TERMS OF USE

Pipe Exchange reserves the right, at any time, to modify, amend, alter or update these Terms of Use. These changes will be effective as of the date we post the revised version. By continuing to use the Website following such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates, you agree to be bound by such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates. Therefore, you should periodically visit this page to review our most current Terms of Use.

You may access the current version of these Terms of Use at any time by clicking on the link marked “Terms of Use” at the bottom of each page of the Website.

PRIVACY POLICY

In the course of your use of the Website, you may be asked to provide certain personalized information to us (such information referred to hereinafter as “User Information”).  Our information collection and use policies with respect to the privacy of such User Information are set forth in the Website’s Privacy Policy which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.  You acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of User Information, and you agree to keep it up to date. 

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Pipe Exchange respects the intellectual property rights of others. As between you and Pipe Exchange, and except any User Information which you provide, all rights, title and interests in the Website, including all the content (including, for example, audio, photographs, illustrations, graphics, other visuals, video, copy, software, etc.), code, data and materials thereon, the look and feel, design and organization of the Website, and the compilation of the content, code, data and materials on the Website, including but not limited to any copyrights, trademark rights, patent rights, database rights, moral rights, sui generis rights and other intellectual property and proprietary rights therein (collectively the “Content”) are owned by Pipe Exchange or by third parties who have licensed or provided their Content to us. The Website is protected under Trademarks (as defined below), copyright, patent, trade secret and other intellectual property rights laws, and your use of the Website does not grant to you ownership of any Content you may access on the Website. You are prohibited from using the Website to infringe or violate any intellectual property rights. Pipe Exchange may terminate your right to access the Website if it believes you are using the Website in a manner that infringes the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights of another.

We may investigate occurrences that may involve violations of the security of the Services or of the law and we may involve, and cooperate with, law enforcement authorities in prosecuting users who are involved in such violations.

The trademarks, logos, service marks and trade names (collectively the “Trademarks”) displayed on the Website or on content available through the Website are registered and unregistered Trademarks of ours and others and may not be used unless authorized by the trademark owner.  All Trademarks not owned by us that appear on the Website or on or through the Website’s services, if any, are the property of their respective owners.  Nothing contained on the Website should be construed as granting, by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license or right to use any Trademark displayed on the Website without our written permission or that of the third-party rights holder.  Your misuse of the Trademarks displayed on the Website is strictly prohibited.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its Trademark rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

PERSONAL USE ONLY

The Website and the Content are intended for your personal use.  You may access and view the content on the Website via your computer or other internet compatible device, and make single copies or prints of the content on the Website for your personal, internal use only.   The Website and the services offered on or through the Website, including Pipe Exchange’s e-publication and any other content and materials thereon, are only for your personal, non-commercial use. Except as otherwise provided on the Website, you may not modify, copy, distribute, transmit, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, sell, create derivative works from, transfer, or sell any information, software, products or services obtained from the Website. Use of the Website to sell a product or service, or to increase traffic to your website for commercial reasons, such as advertising sales is expressly forbidden.

PROHIBITED USE

Any commercial distribution, publishing or exploitation of the Website, or any content, code, data or materials on the Website, is strictly prohibited unless you have received the express prior permission of Pipe Exchange or the applicable rights holder.  You may not otherwise download, display, copy, reproduce, distribute, modify, perform, transfer, create derivative works from, sell or otherwise exploit any content, code, data or materials on the Website.  If you make other use of the Website, or the content, code, data or materials thereon, except as otherwise provided above, you may violate copyright and other laws of the United States, other countries, as well as applicable state laws and may be subject to liability for such unauthorized use.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its intellectual property rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

SECURITY

You are prohibited from violating, or attempting to violate the security of the Website. Any such violations may result in criminal and civil liabilities to you.  You warrant and agree that, while using the Website and the various services and features offered on or through the Website, you shall not: (a) impersonate any person or entity or misrepresent your affiliation with any other person or entity; (b) insert your own or a third party’s advertising, branding or other promotional content into any of the Website’s content, materials or services, or use, redistribute, republish or exploit such content or service for any further commercial or promotional purposes or take any action that would constitute or could be interpreted as an endorsement or sponsorship by Pipe Exchange of any third party site, content, information or other materials, or in any manner that would violate the terms and conditions of any such third party sites; (c) attempt to probe, scan, or test the vulnerability of any system or network; or (d) attempt to gain unauthorized access to data not intended for you and/or other computer systems through the Website.  You shall not: (i) engage in spidering, “screen scraping,” “database scraping,” harvesting of e-mail addresses, wireless addresses or other contact or personal information, or any other automatic means of accessing, logging-in or registering on the Website or for any services or features offered on or through the Website, or obtaining lists of users or obtaining or accessing other information or features on, from or through the Website or the services offered on or through the Website, including, without limitation, any information residing on any server or database connected to the Website or any services offered on or through the Website; (ii) obtain or attempt to obtain unauthorized access to computer systems, materials, information or any services made available on or through the Website through any means; (iii) use the Website or the services made available on or through the Website in any manner with the intent to interrupt, damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or such services, including, without limitation, sending mass unsolicited messages or “flooding,” “spamming,” or “crashing” any systems; (iv) use the Website or the Website’s services or features in violation of Pipe Exchange’s or any third party’s intellectual property or other proprietary or legal rights; or (v) use the Website or the Website’s services in violation of any applicable law.  You further agree that you may not attempt (or encourage or support anyone else’s attempt) to circumvent, reverse engineer, decrypt, or otherwise alter or interfere with the Website or the Website’s services, or any content thereof, or make unauthorized use thereof.  You agree that you will not use the Website in any manner that could damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or interfere with any other party’s use and enjoyment of the Website. You may not obtain or attempt to obtain any materials or information through any means not intentionally made publicly available or provided for through the Website. Pipe Exchange will investigate any alleged violations and will cooperate with law enforcement agencies in their investigations.

THIRD-PARTY CONTENT

Some of the information and material available through the Website are provided to Pipe Exchange by third parties (“Third-Party Material”). In some instances, the source of the Third-Party Material is identified. Third-Party Material is provided for your convenience only and Pipe Exchange does not endorse these materials or the parties who supply them to us. Pipe Exchange does not warrant or represent that these Third-Party Materials are current, accurate or reliable.

COPYRIGHT AGENT

We respect the intellectual property rights of others, and require that the people who use the Website do the same.  If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please forward the following information to Pipe Exchange’s Copyright Agent, designated as such pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(2), named below:

  • Your address, telephone number, and email address;
  • A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
  • A description of where the alleged infringing material is located;
  • A statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law;
  • An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest; and
  • A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your Notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
  • For all email submissions please include the subject line: DMCA Takedown Request.

 

Pipe Exchange has adopted a policy of terminating, in appropriate circumstances, accounts of users of the services or the Website who are deemed to have repeatedly uploaded content that infringes the intellectual property rights of others.

 

Copyright Agent:

Pipe Exchange Legal

c/o Pipe Exchange LLC

14025 West Road.
Suite #100
Houston, TX 77041

Phone: + (713) 934-9480

Email: dmca@pipexch.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THE WEBSITE AND ITS CONTENT ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS, WITHOUT REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER. PIPE EXCHANGE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTIES RIGHTS, AND THE WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE. PIPE EXCHANGE MAKES NO WARRANTIES ABOUT THE ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, COMPLETENESS, OR TIMELINESS OF THE MATERIAL, SERVICES, SOFTWARE, TEXT, GRAPHICS, AND LINKS FOUND OR CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE. PIPE EXCHANGE DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE WEBSITE, THE CONTENT, OR ITS SERVERS ARE FREE OF VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS. YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YOU OBTAIN MATERIAL THROUGH THE USE OF THE WEBSITE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS.

ALL MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THE WEBSITE IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY, HAS NOT BEEN INDEPENDENTLY VERIFIED, HAS NOT BEEN RECOMMENDED BY ANY FEDERAL OR STATE REGULATORY AUTHORITY AND MAY CONTAIN ERRORS OR OMISSIONS OF MATERIAL INFORMATION. THE MATERIAL AND INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE SHOULD NOT, THEREFORE, BE USED OR RELIED UPON FOR ANY SPECIFIC REASON OR APPLICATION WITHOUT INDEPENDENT COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF ITS ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, SUITABILITY AND APPLICABILITY. ANYONE MAKING USE OF THE MATERIAL DOES SO AT HIS/HER/ITS OWN SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE RISK AND ASSUMES ANY AND ALL ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DAMAGE OR LIABILITY RESULTING FROM SUCH USE.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

IN NO EVENT SHALL PIPE EXCHANGE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, LOST PROFITS, OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) RESULTING FROM THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE MATERIAL ON THE WEBSITE OR SITES LINKED TO THE WEBSITE, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT PIPE EXCHANGE IS ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

TERMINATION

Pipe Exchange may terminate, change, suspend or discontinue any aspect of the Website or the Website’s services at any time.  Pipe Exchange may restrict, suspend or terminate your access to the Website and/or its services if we believe you are in breach of our terms and conditions or applicable law, or for any other reason without notice or liability.  Pipe Exchange maintains a policy that provides for the termination in appropriate circumstances of the Website use privileges of users who are repeat infringers of intellectual property rights.

USER’S REMEDY

If you are dissatisfied with any portion of the Website or with any of these Terms of Use, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue using the Website.

GOVERNING LAW AND VENUE

These Terms of Use and the relationship between you and Pipe Exchange shall be governed by the laws of the United States and the State of Florida without regard to its conflict of law provisions. You hereby irrevocably submit and consent to the personal and exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located within Miami-Dade County, Florida and agree that any cause of action that may arise under these Terms of Use and all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of the Website shall be commenced and be heard in the appropriate court in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The failure of Pipe Exchange to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms of Use shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any provision of these Terms of Use is found by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties nevertheless agree that the court should endeavor to give effect to the parties’ intentions as reflected in the provision, and the other provisions of these Terms of Use remain in full force and effect. 

QUESTIONS ABOUT TERMS OF USE

If you have any questions regarding these Terms of Use, please either:

Send an email to sales@pipexch.com

Write to Pipe Exchange at the following address:

14025 West Road

Suite 100

Houston, TX 77041

 

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