U.S. Northeast Update: Appalachian Basin Gas Production Still Outpacing Pipeline Construction

U.S. Northeast Update: Appalachian Basin Gas Production Still Outpacing Pipeline Construction
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U.S. Northeast Update: Appalachian Basin Gas Production Still Outpacing Pipeline Construction

The Northeast power grid is the most natural gas-dependent of all U.S. regions, and the Appalachian Basin is setting record highs for gas production. But pipeline construction and expansion projects, bedeviled by regulatory challenges and legal activism, have failed to keep up, and takeaway capacity continues to lag production.  

Natural gas now fuels more than half of the Northeast’s growing electricity consumption, but environmentalists in the region have declared war on natural gas and the pipelines that deliver it, stalling projects that could have reduced winter price spikes and supply disruptions.  

“There is no question that it is becoming more difficult every year to move projects forward with regulatory siting as a key challenge for all energy infrastructure – not just natural gas,” said Charles Crews, president and CEO of the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), noting opposition to projects ranging from electric transmission lines to wind turbines.  

Notable pipeline casualties in recent years include Kinder Morgan’s Northeast Energy Direct project, which was to have added 1.3 Bcf/d of incremental capacity to its Tennessee Gas system, and the Access Northeast Pipeline, which Enbridge sidelined due to “a lack of policies to support project financing in the region.”   

In February 2020, Williams and its partners Duke, Cabot Oil & Gas and AltaGas also halted investment in the proposed 650 MMcf/d Constitution Pipeline project, which would have extended 124 miles from Pennsylvania to the Iroquois Gas Transmission and Tennessee Pipeline systems in New York.  Despite positive court decisions and permit applications, the developers concluded that “the underlying risk adjusted return for this greenfield pipeline project has diminished in such a way that further development is no longer supported.”   

Despite delays and cancellations, pipeline operators continue to chip away at capacity shortages with innovative expansion programs and rare greenfield projects.   

But while pipeline expansions continue, albeit more slowly, the Northeast’s aversion to energy projects means most new capacity is going to other regions, and future capacity additions seem as likely to warm homes in Beijing as in Boston.  

What Pandemic?  

“The Appalachian Basin remains the most productive shale gas region in the country,” said Crews, whose NGA represents 36 member companies across the six New England states, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.  

“Last year, during the COVID pandemic and economic shutdown, U.S. gas production declined by 2%, but growth actually continued in Appalachia,” Crews said. “So, the production outlook remains strong, particularly in the current price environment.”  

Dry natural gas production from the Appalachian Basin’s Marcellus and Utica shale formations has been growing annually for more than a decade, and monthly production has recently set new record highs.   

Production in the region reached 32.5 Bcf/d in December 2020, and it averaged 31.9 Bcf/d during the first half of 2021 – the highest average for a six-month period since production began in 2008 – according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).  

In fact, on its own, the Appalachian Basin would have been the third-largest natural gas producer in the world for the first half of 2021, behind Russia and the rest of the United States, EIA statistics show.  

“Record-high dry natural gas production in the first half of 2021 was made possible by growth in pipeline takeaway capacity that allows natural gas produced in the Appalachian Basin to reach other demand markets …” the EIA wrote in September.   

“From 2008 to 2020, total pipeline takeaway capacity from the Northeast increased from 4.5 Bcf/d to 24.5 Bcf/d, alleviating some congestion and supporting higher wholesale natural gas prices in the region,” the EIA said.  

Most of the increase in takeaway capacity happened between 2014 and 2020, when pipeline capacity increased by 16.5 Bcf/d, much of which was directed to the Midwest.  

Hits and misses   

Pipeline takeaway capacity from Appalachia to Canada and to the Southeast has also increased in recent years with projects such as the Enbridge-operated Sabal Trail Transmission to Florida and the Rover Pipeline to its Dawn storage hub in Canada, via Vector Pipeline interconnect in Michigan.   

Williams’ $3 billion Atlantic Sunrise project, which commenced full operations in late 2018, added 1.7 Bcf/d takeaway capacity to markets all along the East Coast. Cabot Oil & Gas, the Marcellus-focused independent, is the largest shipper with 850 MMcf/d, accounting for half of Atlantic Sunrise capacity. About 350 MMcf/d of Cabot’s total is committed to the Cove Point LNG liquefaction facility in Lusby, Maryland, to help meet growing demand for U.S. LNG exports to Asian markets.  

TC Energy’s 300,000 Mcf/d Buckeye Xpress project began operations in December 2020. The $709 million project was involved infrastructure improvements and replaced 66 miles of existing natural gas pipeline with more reliable 36-inch pipe in Ohio and West Virginia. The project increases transportation capacity out of the Appalachia Basin into CGT’s interconnection in Leach, Kentucky, and the TCO Pool in West Virginia.  The170-mile Mountaineer Xpress, another TC Energy project, came online in 2019. (Photo: TC Energy)

The 170-mile Mountaineer Xpress, another TC Energy project, came online in 2019, adding 2.7 Bcf/d of takeaway capacity from sources in West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania.  

Although natural gas pipeline capacity out of the Northeast has grown every year since 2014, the EIA said, the rate of increase has slowed. That trend is due, in part, to the cancellation of such major projects as the 600-mile Atlantic Coast Pipeline from West Virginia to eastern North Carolina.  

That 1.5 Bcf/d project of Dominion Energy and Duke Energy was abandoned in July 2020 after six years of development efforts and billions of dollars of investment. It was to have added 1.5 Bcf/d of natural gas takeaway capacity.  

“While the need for new infrastructure in our region remains,” the developers said of its cancellation, “there is too much legal uncertainty to continue moving forward with the project.”  

Despite all the challenges, the advancement of some important projects has continued, including Mountain Valley.  

“We are certainly encouraged by the progress of these projects and others, and believe the potential remains strong,” Crews said.  

“Natural gas will remain a key energy source for years to come, and these projects demonstrate how new infrastructure investment can be done in a way to ensure economic and environmental sustainability,” Crews added. “We will continue to do what we can to support the industry as projects are developed that meet specific market needs, as well as helping achieve environmental goals.  

Mountain Valley  

Mountain Valley Pipeline (MVP) is the largest natural gas pipeline currently being constructed in the region and is targeted to enter service in 2022.   

The project is intended to further alleviate pipeline congestion by transporting 2 Bcf/d of natural gas from northwestern West Virginia to southern Virginia, extending the Equitrans transmission system to Williams’ Transco Zone 5 compressor station 165 near Gretna, Virginia.   

U.S. pipeline company Equitrans Midstream said in May that the venture building Mountain Valley from West Virginia to Virginia delayed its startup to the summer of 2022 and boosted its estimated cost to $6.2 billion.   

When MVP started construction in February 2018, it estimated the 303-mile, 2.0 Bcf/d project would cost about $3.5 billion and enter service by late 2018. Before the May update, MVP was expected to enter service by the end of this year at an estimated cost of $5.8 billion-$6 billion.  

Equitrans said the delay was due to requests by environmental regulators in Virginia and West Virginia to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to extend the 120-day review period to evaluate MVP’s water quality certification applications.  

In anticipation of a lengthy legal battle, MVP in February decided to pull its previously approved Nationwide Permit 12, which allowed the pipeline to cross several waterbodies under one authorization, and instead file some 300 individual stream crossing permits with the Army Corps and states. It is those applications the state agencies want more time to review.  

MVP is one of several U.S. pipelines delayed by regulatory and legal fights with environmental and local groups that found problems with federal permits – like the Nationwide Permit – issued by the Trump administration.  

Separately, Equitrans said MVP is targeting starting construction of the $450 million-$500 million Southgate pipeline extension from Virginia to North Carolina in 2022 and placing the project in service during the spring of 2023. Equitrans owns 47.2% of MVP Southgate and will operate the pipeline.   

MVP is owned by units of Equitrans, which has a 47.8%-interest in the project and will operate the pipeline, NextEra Energy, Consolidated Edison, AltaGas and RGC Resources.  

Leidy South  

The Leidy South Project is an expansion of Williams’ existing Pennsylvania energy infrastructure designed to connect natural gas supply in northern and western Pennsylvania with growing demand centers along the Atlantic Seaboard.  

With in-service planned in time for the 2021-22 winter heating season, the project will increase flows by 582,400 dekatherms per day along the existing southbound Transco pipeline corridor, which brings gas from the Northeast to the Mid-Atlantic region.  

ne gas takeaway eia

The design of the Leidy South Project limits environmental impacts by maximizing the use of existing energy infrastructure. It replaces 6.3 miles of pipelines and adds 5.9 miles of new 36- and 42-inch pipeline loops along the existing corridor. It also adds two greenfield compressor stations and installs additional horsepower at two existing compressor stations in Wyoming and Columbia counties.  

In August, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) authorized Transco to place into service the Benton Loop and Compressor Station 610 associated with the project in Lycoming and Columbia counties, Pennsylvania. That approval came shortly after Cabot Oil & Gas indicated a Dec. 1 in-service date for the project.   

Cabot is among the few Northeast producers to announce plans for increased gas production in the second half of 2021. During a July conference call with investors, Cabot CEO Dan Dinges said the company expected to increase Marcellus gas production about 4% in the third quarter vs. the second quarter, and another 10% in the fourth quarter.  

Cabot executives, emphasizing their bullish outlook for Northeast gas prices through 2022, tied that estimated 230 MMcf/d production growth in the fourth quarter to its additional 250 MMcf/d in firm transportation portfolio from the Leidy South expansion. It’s senior vice president of Marketing, Jeffrey Hutton, said the construction and expansion of compressor stations are “pretty much complete,” and the pipeline construction remains on schedule.  

Mariner East  

The final segment of Energy Transfer’s multi-phased Mariner East natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline system is nearing completion and expected to be fully operational before the end of this year.  

Energy Transfer operates the Mariner East 1 and Mariner East 2 pipelines and is building the Mariner East 2X pipeline.  

Those three pipelines will transport natural resources such as propane, ethane and butane from the Marcellus and Utica Shale formations to the Marcus Hook Industrial Complex in southeastern Pennsylvania and other access points in between. These resources will be distributed to destinations in Pennsylvania and other domestic and international markets.  

Mariner East 1 is an underground pipeline, completed in 2014, that transports liquid propane and ethane from western Pennsylvania approximately 300 miles east to the Marcus Hook Industrial Complex in Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, and Claymont, Delaware.  

Mariner East 2 is a new, approximately 350-mile underground pipeline delivering propane, butane and ethane east from Ohio and West Virginia into Pennsylvania. The mainly 20-inch pipeline entered partial service on Dec. 29, 2018. The pipeline was expected to be fully in service by the third quarter of 2021.  

Mariner East 2X is a 16-inch pipeline currently under construction that parallels ME2. This pipeline was placed into partial service in fourth quarter of 2020 and is expected to be placed into full service in Q2 2021.  

Replacement Programs  

While new pipeline construction in the Northeast region has slowed, local distribution companies (LDC) have continued their aggressive programs to replace aging infrastructure with modern pipelines.  

“The Northeast has some of the oldest remaining pipelines in the United States, and the replacement work will continue long-term,” NGA’s Crews said.  

“Utilities are working hard and coordinating with state regulatory agencies on modernizing infrastructure, and it remains a top priority,” he added. “The outcome of this effort will be a more safe, efficient and resilient natural gas system that also reduces emissions.”  

PennEast Ends Development of Natural Gas Pipeline  

PennEast Pipeline officials said the company is ceasing “all further development” of the natural gas pipeline it intended to build from Pennsylvania to New Jersey, in part because the project has not yet received all the required permits.  

“Following extensive evaluation and discussion, [PennEast] recently determined further development of the project no longer is supported,” The company wrote said in an email. “PennEast has ceased all further development of the project.”  

About one-third of the project is located in New Jersey, where a crucial water quality permit has been withheld.  

The 1.1 Bcf/d pipeline received approval from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 2018 and won a U.S. Supreme Court decision over private companies’ use of eminent domain this summer – a ruling seen as a major victory for the midstream and utilities industries.  

Speaking for the majority of the court, Chief Justice John Roberts wrote, “Over the course of the nation’s history, the federal government and its delegatees have exercised the eminent domain power to give effect to that vision, connecting our country through turnpikes, bridges, and railroads – and more recently pipelines, telecommunications infrastructure, and electric transmission facilities.”     

PennEast had maintained, as recently as August, the pipeline would enter service in 2022, even though the acquisition of rights-of-way had been held up by legal and regulatory requirements.  

The $1.2 billion pipeline was under development by a consortium of companies, including AGL Resources, NJR Pipeline Company, PSEG Power, SJI Midstream, Spectra Energy Partners and UGI Energy Services. According to the Philadelphia Inquirer, four of the five companies have told investors recently that their investments in PennEast were “impaired.” 


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PIPE EXCHANGE TERMS OF USE

Last updated: August 2019

Welcome to https://pipexch.com/Pipe Exchange (the “Website”). The Website is owned and operated by Pipe Exchange LLCPipe ExchangePipe Exchange including its related companies, affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively “Pipe Exchange,” “we,” “us,” “our”). We make the Website available to you, subject to the following Terms of Use (these “Terms of Use”). PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS OF USE CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE WEBSITE. By using the Website, you agree to these Terms of Use and agree they create a legally binding agreement between you and Pipe Exchange. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, you may not use the Website. These Terms of Use are effective unless and until terminated by Pipe Exchange.

Minors are not authorized to access or use the Website for any purpose.

CHANGES TO TERMS OF USE

Pipe Exchange reserves the right, at any time, to modify, amend, alter or update these Terms of Use. These changes will be effective as of the date we post the revised version. By continuing to use the Website following such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates, you agree to be bound by such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates. Therefore, you should periodically visit this page to review our most current Terms of Use.

You may access the current version of these Terms of Use at any time by clicking on the link marked “Terms of Use” at the bottom of each page of the Website.

PRIVACY POLICY

In the course of your use of the Website, you may be asked to provide certain personalized information to us (such information referred to hereinafter as “User Information”).  Our information collection and use policies with respect to the privacy of such User Information are set forth in the Website’s Privacy Policy which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.  You acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of User Information, and you agree to keep it up to date. 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Pipe Exchange respects the intellectual property rights of others. As between you and Pipe Exchange, and except any User Information which you provide, all rights, title and interests in the Website, including all the content (including, for example, audio, photographs, illustrations, graphics, other visuals, video, copy, software, etc.), code, data and materials thereon, the look and feel, design and organization of the Website, and the compilation of the content, code, data and materials on the Website, including but not limited to any copyrights, trademark rights, patent rights, database rights, moral rights, sui generis rights and other intellectual property and proprietary rights therein (collectively the “Content”) are owned by Pipe Exchange or by third parties who have licensed or provided their Content to us. The Website is protected under Trademarks (as defined below), copyright, patent, trade secret and other intellectual property rights laws, and your use of the Website does not grant to you ownership of any Content you may access on the Website. You are prohibited from using the Website to infringe or violate any intellectual property rights. Pipe Exchange may terminate your right to access the Website if it believes you are using the Website in a manner that infringes the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights of another.

We may investigate occurrences that may involve violations of the security of the Services or of the law and we may involve, and cooperate with, law enforcement authorities in prosecuting users who are involved in such violations.

The trademarks, logos, service marks and trade names (collectively the “Trademarks”) displayed on the Website or on content available through the Website are registered and unregistered Trademarks of ours and others and may not be used unless authorized by the trademark owner.  All Trademarks not owned by us that appear on the Website or on or through the Website’s services, if any, are the property of their respective owners.  Nothing contained on the Website should be construed as granting, by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license or right to use any Trademark displayed on the Website without our written permission or that of the third-party rights holder.  Your misuse of the Trademarks displayed on the Website is strictly prohibited.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its Trademark rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

PERSONAL USE ONLY

The Website and the Content are intended for your personal use.  You may access and view the content on the Website via your computer or other internet compatible device, and make single copies or prints of the content on the Website for your personal, internal use only.   The Website and the services offered on or through the Website, including Pipe Exchange’s e-publication and any other content and materials thereon, are only for your personal, non-commercial use. Except as otherwise provided on the Website, you may not modify, copy, distribute, transmit, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, sell, create derivative works from, transfer, or sell any information, software, products or services obtained from the Website. Use of the Website to sell a product or service, or to increase traffic to your website for commercial reasons, such as advertising sales is expressly forbidden.

PROHIBITED USE

Any commercial distribution, publishing or exploitation of the Website, or any content, code, data or materials on the Website, is strictly prohibited unless you have received the express prior permission of Pipe Exchange or the applicable rights holder.  You may not otherwise download, display, copy, reproduce, distribute, modify, perform, transfer, create derivative works from, sell or otherwise exploit any content, code, data or materials on the Website.  If you make other use of the Website, or the content, code, data or materials thereon, except as otherwise provided above, you may violate copyright and other laws of the United States, other countries, as well as applicable state laws and may be subject to liability for such unauthorized use.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its intellectual property rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

SECURITY

You are prohibited from violating, or attempting to violate the security of the Website. Any such violations may result in criminal and civil liabilities to you.  You warrant and agree that, while using the Website and the various services and features offered on or through the Website, you shall not: (a) impersonate any person or entity or misrepresent your affiliation with any other person or entity; (b) insert your own or a third party’s advertising, branding or other promotional content into any of the Website’s content, materials or services, or use, redistribute, republish or exploit such content or service for any further commercial or promotional purposes or take any action that would constitute or could be interpreted as an endorsement or sponsorship by Pipe Exchange of any third party site, content, information or other materials, or in any manner that would violate the terms and conditions of any such third party sites; (c) attempt to probe, scan, or test the vulnerability of any system or network; or (d) attempt to gain unauthorized access to data not intended for you and/or other computer systems through the Website.  You shall not: (i) engage in spidering, “screen scraping,” “database scraping,” harvesting of e-mail addresses, wireless addresses or other contact or personal information, or any other automatic means of accessing, logging-in or registering on the Website or for any services or features offered on or through the Website, or obtaining lists of users or obtaining or accessing other information or features on, from or through the Website or the services offered on or through the Website, including, without limitation, any information residing on any server or database connected to the Website or any services offered on or through the Website; (ii) obtain or attempt to obtain unauthorized access to computer systems, materials, information or any services made available on or through the Website through any means; (iii) use the Website or the services made available on or through the Website in any manner with the intent to interrupt, damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or such services, including, without limitation, sending mass unsolicited messages or “flooding,” “spamming,” or “crashing” any systems; (iv) use the Website or the Website’s services or features in violation of Pipe Exchange’s or any third party’s intellectual property or other proprietary or legal rights; or (v) use the Website or the Website’s services in violation of any applicable law.  You further agree that you may not attempt (or encourage or support anyone else’s attempt) to circumvent, reverse engineer, decrypt, or otherwise alter or interfere with the Website or the Website’s services, or any content thereof, or make unauthorized use thereof.  You agree that you will not use the Website in any manner that could damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or interfere with any other party’s use and enjoyment of the Website. You may not obtain or attempt to obtain any materials or information through any means not intentionally made publicly available or provided for through the Website. Pipe Exchange will investigate any alleged violations and will cooperate with law enforcement agencies in their investigations.

THIRD-PARTY CONTENT

Some of the information and material available through the Website are provided to Pipe Exchange by third parties (“Third-Party Material”). In some instances, the source of the Third-Party Material is identified. Third-Party Material is provided for your convenience only and Pipe Exchange does not endorse these materials or the parties who supply them to us. Pipe Exchange does not warrant or represent that these Third-Party Materials are current, accurate or reliable.

COPYRIGHT AGENT

We respect the intellectual property rights of others, and require that the people who use the Website do the same.  If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please forward the following information to Pipe Exchange’s Copyright Agent, designated as such pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(2), named below:

  • Your address, telephone number, and email address;
  • A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
  • A description of where the alleged infringing material is located;
  • A statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law;
  • An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest; and
  • A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your Notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
  • For all email submissions please include the subject line: DMCA Takedown Request.

 

Pipe Exchange has adopted a policy of terminating, in appropriate circumstances, accounts of users of the services or the Website who are deemed to have repeatedly uploaded content that infringes the intellectual property rights of others.

 

Copyright Agent:

Pipe Exchange Legal

c/o Pipe Exchange LLC

14025 West Road.
Suite #100
Houston, TX 77041

Phone: + (713) 934-9480

Email: dmca@pipexch.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THE WEBSITE AND ITS CONTENT ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS, WITHOUT REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER. PIPE EXCHANGE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTIES RIGHTS, AND THE WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE. PIPE EXCHANGE MAKES NO WARRANTIES ABOUT THE ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, COMPLETENESS, OR TIMELINESS OF THE MATERIAL, SERVICES, SOFTWARE, TEXT, GRAPHICS, AND LINKS FOUND OR CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE. PIPE EXCHANGE DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE WEBSITE, THE CONTENT, OR ITS SERVERS ARE FREE OF VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS. YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YOU OBTAIN MATERIAL THROUGH THE USE OF THE WEBSITE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS.

ALL MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THE WEBSITE IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY, HAS NOT BEEN INDEPENDENTLY VERIFIED, HAS NOT BEEN RECOMMENDED BY ANY FEDERAL OR STATE REGULATORY AUTHORITY AND MAY CONTAIN ERRORS OR OMISSIONS OF MATERIAL INFORMATION. THE MATERIAL AND INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE SHOULD NOT, THEREFORE, BE USED OR RELIED UPON FOR ANY SPECIFIC REASON OR APPLICATION WITHOUT INDEPENDENT COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF ITS ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, SUITABILITY AND APPLICABILITY. ANYONE MAKING USE OF THE MATERIAL DOES SO AT HIS/HER/ITS OWN SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE RISK AND ASSUMES ANY AND ALL ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DAMAGE OR LIABILITY RESULTING FROM SUCH USE.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

IN NO EVENT SHALL PIPE EXCHANGE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, LOST PROFITS, OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) RESULTING FROM THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE MATERIAL ON THE WEBSITE OR SITES LINKED TO THE WEBSITE, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT PIPE EXCHANGE IS ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

TERMINATION

Pipe Exchange may terminate, change, suspend or discontinue any aspect of the Website or the Website’s services at any time.  Pipe Exchange may restrict, suspend or terminate your access to the Website and/or its services if we believe you are in breach of our terms and conditions or applicable law, or for any other reason without notice or liability.  Pipe Exchange maintains a policy that provides for the termination in appropriate circumstances of the Website use privileges of users who are repeat infringers of intellectual property rights.

USER’S REMEDY

If you are dissatisfied with any portion of the Website or with any of these Terms of Use, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue using the Website.

GOVERNING LAW AND VENUE

These Terms of Use and the relationship between you and Pipe Exchange shall be governed by the laws of the United States and the State of Florida without regard to its conflict of law provisions. You hereby irrevocably submit and consent to the personal and exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located within Miami-Dade County, Florida and agree that any cause of action that may arise under these Terms of Use and all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of the Website shall be commenced and be heard in the appropriate court in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The failure of Pipe Exchange to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms of Use shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any provision of these Terms of Use is found by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties nevertheless agree that the court should endeavor to give effect to the parties’ intentions as reflected in the provision, and the other provisions of these Terms of Use remain in full force and effect. 

QUESTIONS ABOUT TERMS OF USE

If you have any questions regarding these Terms of Use, please either:

Send an email to sales@pipexch.com

Write to Pipe Exchange at the following address:

14025 West Road

Suite 100

Houston, TX 77041

 

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