Oil Majors Stuck Between A Rock And A Hard Place

Oil Majors Stuck Between A Rock And A Hard Place
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Oil Majors Stuck Between A Rock And A Hard Place

The past few years have been historic for as far as crude oil forecasts are concerned. Back in 2015 the view that crude oil demand could peak during the 2020s or 2030s was still met with disbelief (and some ridicule…). Economic growth had been pushing crude oil demand up ever year for decades already, so why would things become different, so the reasoning went. Today, however, essentially all major energy forecasters, including BPShellTotalDNV-GL, the IEA and even OPEC, have come round and acknowledge Peak Oil Demand as a realistic possibility.

The strategic response of the Oil Majors to this possibility has differed. But so far, none seem to have won over the investment community. What could be the reason for this? And does this leave the Majors at risk of being cut-off from capital?

Crude Oil during the 20th century

As Admiral of the Royal British Navy, Winston Churchill took a decision that not only shocked his nation, but also defined the role crude oil would play in the global economy during the 20th century. 

Great Britain had become the world’s leading nation thanks to its invention of the steam-engine, coupled with an abundance of coal in the country. This enabled the country to be the first to mechanize industry, which made it not only the world’s industrial heartland, but also its leading military power, as Britain’s mechanized industry was able to churn out warships that were much larger and more heavily armed than its rivals could produce. And by fitting them out with steam-engines, these British warships were also able to travel faster and further, independent from wind. In other words, thanks to the steam-engine and coal, Britain became “the empire on which the sun never sets”. 

Nevertheless, in 1912 Winston Churchill decided that the British Navy’s future would be based on crude oil, when he ordered construction of the Queen Elizabeth class of super-dreadnoughts based on an internal combustion engine design. Many were outraged. Steam-engines needed coal, of which Britain had plenty. But Churchill’s internal combustion engines needed liquid fuels derived from crude oil, of which Britain had only a negligible amount. So what on earth was he thinking? But Churchill was convinced that warships which coupled the technology of the internal combustion engine with the physics of crude oil could be made larger, more heavily armed, faster, and with a greater range of operation, than any warship that utilized a coal fired steam-engine. The introduction of the internal combustion engine would therefore ensure that in the competition with France, Russia and Germany, the British Navy would remain superior.

Churchill turned out to be right. Judging by speed, range, ease of operation, reliability and economics, the internal combustion engine fueled by a crude oil derivative did indeed outperform all other transportation solutions. And, as it turned out, these advantages applied not only to (war)ships, but also planes, trains and automobiles. As a result of this superiority of the internal combustion engine, oil became the most important source of energy of the 20th century.

The implications for the strategy of oil companies was far-reaching. Since there was no technology that could compete with the internal combustion engine, growth of the global economy ensured growth in demand for crude oil. Oil companies could therefore simply focus on finding crude oil, producing, refining and marketing it. For as long as they could do this at a price point that was lower than that of their competitors, they would always find takers for their product. They would be able to sell all the oil they could lay their hands on, and at margins which guaranteed record profits and rates of return.

The Crude Oil Business during the 21st century

Over recent years, a number of trends have developed that call into question the future of the internal combustion engine and crude oil. 

Primary among these trends is sustainability. The first generation that grew up in the internal combustion engine and crude oil era, the baby-boomer generation, did not know much about the impact on the environment of crude oil production, refining and burning in an internal combustion engine, as this body of knowledge developed only during the 1970s. The baby-boomer generation therefore became environmentally aware after they had firmly established a certain lifestyle. The descendants of the baby-boomers, the Millennial generation, was brought up with knowledge of the environmental implications of crude oil. Consequently, they became not only aware of the environmental issues associated with the internal combustion engine and crude oil, but also concerned about them. As this generation educated its descendants, the so-called Generation Z, in these concerns from the youngest of ages, this latter generation moved beyond environmental awareness and concern, to action. Generation Z consumers are considered the “green generation” because for them, environmental concern is a key factor in day-to-day consumption decisions. For the sake of the environment they are willing to make do with products that are sub-optimal from a convenience perspective but deemed sustainable, and they are willing to pay a premium for products that are deemed sustainable.  This trend would be irrelevant for the internal combustion engine and crude oil had it not been for a second trend, namely technological innovation. Over recent years a number of technologies that greatly appeal to the Generation Z, the consumers of the future, have developed to the point where it becomes possible to imagine that they bring forth solutions that can compete with the internal combustion engine and crude oil on power, range, ease of operation, reliability and economics. Chief among these technologies are the electric drivetrain, batteries and hydrogen, which have made electrification of transportation not only possible but likely. 

The third trend of importance to the internal combustion engine and crude oil is ESG investment. On the one hand not fall foul with Generation Z, and on the other hand to leverage this generation’s sustainability preference for financial gain, investors around the world are making sustainability a key tenet of their investing strategy. The bottom line of this trend is that less money will be available for investment in crude oil projects, while that which remains available will most likely come at a premium. 

All this means that there is a real possibility the crude oil business will experience a structural change during the 21st century, as the internal combustion engine could lose its role as the “engine of the global economy” to the electric drivetrain. 

Crude Oil Strategy during the 21st century

If the above scenario – the Energy Transition scenario – were indeed to play out, the Oil Majors would be forced to change their strategies in a fundamental manner. If, namely, crude oil loses the pivotal role it plays in the global economy, growth in demand for it would no longer be guaranteed. In such a market environment, the traditional “find it, produce it, refine and market it” strategy would no longer guarantee the growth in profits that the Oil Majors’ shareholders have come to expect.

This potentiality appears to have triggered strategic reviews at a number of the Oil Majors.

Shell was the first to adopt the Energy Transition scenario as the core for its future strategy, as evidenced by the fact that over the past years  it has announced a number of decisions that are natural responses to this scenario. For example, in 2016 it launched a New Energy division to leverage the opportunities that would result from the Energy Transition, such as in electricity generation, batteries, grid management and hydrogen. in 2018 it adopted methane emissions intensity targets for its assets, which has led it to divest from crude oil resources with high carbon intensity such as the Canadian tar sands. In 2019 the company adopted a new ambition to become the largest power company in the world during the 2030s. And most recently the company announced that it would accelerate it transformation in response to the Energy Transition. It adopted “net zero” emissions targets in April of 2020, and in September 2020 launched a major restructuring to free up funds for investment in the New Energy area.

BP too has changed it strategy its strategy in accordance with the Energy Transition scenario, but more recently than Shell. After the failure of the company’s “Beyond Petroleum” strategy launched in 2002, it spent most of the 2010s managing the implications of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. But since the appointment of a its new chief executive officer Bernard Looney in October 2019, things have changed. In February of 2020, in pretty much his first major announcement, Looney announced the new strategic direction of the company using the slogan “Reimagining energy, reinventing BP”, accompanied by a very specific “Net Zero” ambition. Shortly thereafter the company restructured in accordance with this strategy, implementing a new organization structure and leadership team during May and June of 2020. In August it then set out the details of its new strategy, explaining it to the international investment community during September. Further that month it also communicated its new “core beliefs” about the future of global energy demand, saying it assumes this will continue to grow (“at least for a period”), but in a manner different from before, with a “declining role of fossil fuels offset ‎by an increasing share of renewable energy and a growing role for electricity”. On this basis BP then signed its first major M&A deal to add to its New Energy portfolio, also during September.

Although Total has not made the major announcements around the Energy Transition of Shell and BP, it has not stood idly by. It has been speaking about “integrating climate change” in its strategy since 2017 already, and has made a number of significant investment accordingly. Today, of all the Oil Majors, the Total portfolio of New Energy businesses is probably the most advanced, covering renewable power generationstorageelectric vehicle charging, and, through its Carbon Neutrality Ventures arm, even a hydrogen fuel cell powered commercial vehicles developer.

Over in the United States, however, ExxonMobil and Chevron are taking the contrarian position, with both maintaining a market outlook that is best described as “steady she goes”. Based on this outlook, ExxonMobil believes that heavily investing in addition crude oil, natural gas and petrochemicals capacity now sets the company up for success it the future, especially as its European competitors are speaking about decreasing the share of fossil fuels in their future portfolios. Consequently, the company’s strategic plan targets well over US$ 30 Billion of investment annually over coming years – all in fossil fuels.

Chevron is positioning itself in between the European Oil Majors and ExxonMobil, adopting a wait-and-see strategic approach. Its current strategy prioritizes dividends payments and share buy-backs over investment, as long as it is not fully clear what the future of energy will look like. The company’s top goal is to distribute US$ 75 billion – US$ 80 billion in cash to shareholders over the next five years.

The Stock Market Response Interestingly, at the end of September, the share price of all the mentioned Oil Majors was down significantly on the year. Shell was down 58%, BP 53%, Total 45%, ExxonMobil 52% and Chevron 40%. Part of this is due to the crude oil price decline during the year, and the lingering impact of the COVID19 pandemic on global crude oil demand. But since this should affect all Oil Majors more or less equally, it is fair to assume that the divergence in their share prices movement is related to the differences in their strategies. Based on this assumption, it appears that none of the mentioned strategies has so far fully convinced the international investor community.

As to the reasons why this could be the case, different considerations are likely at play.

As to where global energy markets are heading, the ambition of consumers, governments and international organizations is clear: sustainability remains the trend, to which investment community is responding by prioritizing ESG investment. The “steady she goes” strategy of ExxonMobil does not address this, as a result of which the company finds itself under significant investor pressure at the moment. 

On the other hand, what is not helping the case of the transitioning Oil Majors Shell, BP and Total is the fact that the speed at which they envisage to transition does not align with the 1.5°C global warming limit as outlined by the Paris Agreement. Additionally, smart investors are asking questions about the ability of these companies, which for over a century have focused on fossil fuels, to actually deliver on their transformation ambitions. And, even if one assumes they will be able to, there is no doubt that transforming an Oil Major is harder than starting up a new venture based on the Energy Transition scenario. So why would a smart investor bet her Energy Transition money on a “fossil trying to change”, that will have to deal with a company culture and practices that were developed for the fossil fuel era of the 20th century, when she could also put this money in a New Energy focused startup unhindered by such deadweight? 

This probably explains why Chevron, with its focus on returning cash from existing operations to shareholders, has relatively outperformed its competitors so far this year.

The Way Forward 

This author firmly believes that the Oil Majors cannot succeed without the Energy Transition, and that the Energy Transition cannot succeed without the Crude Oil Majors. 

As to the first point, the need for the Oil Majors to adopt the Energy Transition strategy, in the world before Covid-19, sustainability was what futurologists and trendwatchers call a macro trend. That is, a general movement in society toward a comprehensively different way of life. Sustainability fell into this category because it was in the process of changing consumer preferences; social taboos as with flight shaming; societal priorities, as evidenced by national commitments made under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; government rules and regulations such as bans on single-use plastics and internal combustion engines; and national development policies as exemplified by China’s Industrial Green Development Plan and Europe’s Green Deal. Historically, only cataclysmic events, such as a pandemic or global war, disrupt macro trends. So far, however, the Covid-19 pandemic has not disrupted sustainability. To the contrary, as evidenced by the calls to use the current crisis to accelerate the transition to a carbon neutral economy, it is likely to only accelerate the sustainability trend. Consequently, the pressure on the Crude Oil Majors to transition is likely to increase as well. Those that are transitioning are likely to eventually find themselves under pressure to transition faster. But those that are not transitioning might find themselves cut off from investmentfinancing and funding.

As to the second point, the dependency of the Energy Transition on the Oil Majors, firstly, this has to do with the nature of a transition. Despite the global ambition for a carbon-neutral economy, the dependency of the global economy on the various derivatives of crude oil will not disappear overnight. Since nothing could be more disruptive for the Energy Transition than a shortage of transportation fuels and plastics during the process, even in their current form the Crude Oil Majors will remain an essential component of the global economy. 

Secondly, this has to do with the competencies and capabilities the Oil Majors have built up over the decades. According to the OECD, to meet the needs of the global economy, around $6.3 trillion of investment in the global energy infrastructure is needed annually until 2030. This number rises to $6.9 trillion if all investments are made compatible with global climate ambitions. Clearly, the scale of this necessary effort is huge, and it is hard to imagine how it could be achieved without leveraging the Oil Majors’ experience in delivering massive, technologically complex projects in the most inhospitable areas of the world, and seamlessly connecting the energy produced with consumers globally. 

For the sake of Energy Transition, therefore, the Oil Majors should transition, in a balanced manner, but with a sense of urgency. If they do this while communicating well with their stakeholders, there is no reason to believe the global investment community will not overcome its current hesitancy and come to support their transition strategies. 

In a separate, future article I will expand on my ideas about what a balanced transition strategy should look like for the Oil Majors.

Read it from OilPrice – Photo as posted on OilPrice

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You may contact Pipe Exchange by emailing us at privacy@pipexch.com and we will do our best to provide a prompt response to your question.

PIPE EXCHANGE TERMS OF USE

Last updated: August 2019

Welcome to https://pipexch.com/Pipe Exchange (the “Website”). The Website is owned and operated by Pipe Exchange LLCPipe ExchangePipe Exchange including its related companies, affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively “Pipe Exchange,” “we,” “us,” “our”). We make the Website available to you, subject to the following Terms of Use (these “Terms of Use”). PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS OF USE CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE WEBSITE. By using the Website, you agree to these Terms of Use and agree they create a legally binding agreement between you and Pipe Exchange. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, you may not use the Website. These Terms of Use are effective unless and until terminated by Pipe Exchange.

Minors are not authorized to access or use the Website for any purpose.

CHANGES TO TERMS OF USE

Pipe Exchange reserves the right, at any time, to modify, amend, alter or update these Terms of Use. These changes will be effective as of the date we post the revised version. By continuing to use the Website following such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates, you agree to be bound by such modifications, amendments, alterations or updates. Therefore, you should periodically visit this page to review our most current Terms of Use.

You may access the current version of these Terms of Use at any time by clicking on the link marked “Terms of Use” at the bottom of each page of the Website.

PRIVACY POLICY

In the course of your use of the Website, you may be asked to provide certain personalized information to us (such information referred to hereinafter as “User Information”).  Our information collection and use policies with respect to the privacy of such User Information are set forth in the Website’s Privacy Policy which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.  You acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of User Information, and you agree to keep it up to date. 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Pipe Exchange respects the intellectual property rights of others. As between you and Pipe Exchange, and except any User Information which you provide, all rights, title and interests in the Website, including all the content (including, for example, audio, photographs, illustrations, graphics, other visuals, video, copy, software, etc.), code, data and materials thereon, the look and feel, design and organization of the Website, and the compilation of the content, code, data and materials on the Website, including but not limited to any copyrights, trademark rights, patent rights, database rights, moral rights, sui generis rights and other intellectual property and proprietary rights therein (collectively the “Content”) are owned by Pipe Exchange or by third parties who have licensed or provided their Content to us. The Website is protected under Trademarks (as defined below), copyright, patent, trade secret and other intellectual property rights laws, and your use of the Website does not grant to you ownership of any Content you may access on the Website. You are prohibited from using the Website to infringe or violate any intellectual property rights. Pipe Exchange may terminate your right to access the Website if it believes you are using the Website in a manner that infringes the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights of another.

We may investigate occurrences that may involve violations of the security of the Services or of the law and we may involve, and cooperate with, law enforcement authorities in prosecuting users who are involved in such violations.

The trademarks, logos, service marks and trade names (collectively the “Trademarks”) displayed on the Website or on content available through the Website are registered and unregistered Trademarks of ours and others and may not be used unless authorized by the trademark owner.  All Trademarks not owned by us that appear on the Website or on or through the Website’s services, if any, are the property of their respective owners.  Nothing contained on the Website should be construed as granting, by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license or right to use any Trademark displayed on the Website without our written permission or that of the third-party rights holder.  Your misuse of the Trademarks displayed on the Website is strictly prohibited.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its Trademark rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

PERSONAL USE ONLY

The Website and the Content are intended for your personal use.  You may access and view the content on the Website via your computer or other internet compatible device, and make single copies or prints of the content on the Website for your personal, internal use only.   The Website and the services offered on or through the Website, including Pipe Exchange’s e-publication and any other content and materials thereon, are only for your personal, non-commercial use. Except as otherwise provided on the Website, you may not modify, copy, distribute, transmit, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, sell, create derivative works from, transfer, or sell any information, software, products or services obtained from the Website. Use of the Website to sell a product or service, or to increase traffic to your website for commercial reasons, such as advertising sales is expressly forbidden.

PROHIBITED USE

Any commercial distribution, publishing or exploitation of the Website, or any content, code, data or materials on the Website, is strictly prohibited unless you have received the express prior permission of Pipe Exchange or the applicable rights holder.  You may not otherwise download, display, copy, reproduce, distribute, modify, perform, transfer, create derivative works from, sell or otherwise exploit any content, code, data or materials on the Website.  If you make other use of the Website, or the content, code, data or materials thereon, except as otherwise provided above, you may violate copyright and other laws of the United States, other countries, as well as applicable state laws and may be subject to liability for such unauthorized use.  Pipe Exchange will aggressively enforce its intellectual property rights to the fullest extent of the law, including the seeking of criminal prosecution.

SECURITY

You are prohibited from violating, or attempting to violate the security of the Website. Any such violations may result in criminal and civil liabilities to you.  You warrant and agree that, while using the Website and the various services and features offered on or through the Website, you shall not: (a) impersonate any person or entity or misrepresent your affiliation with any other person or entity; (b) insert your own or a third party’s advertising, branding or other promotional content into any of the Website’s content, materials or services, or use, redistribute, republish or exploit such content or service for any further commercial or promotional purposes or take any action that would constitute or could be interpreted as an endorsement or sponsorship by Pipe Exchange of any third party site, content, information or other materials, or in any manner that would violate the terms and conditions of any such third party sites; (c) attempt to probe, scan, or test the vulnerability of any system or network; or (d) attempt to gain unauthorized access to data not intended for you and/or other computer systems through the Website.  You shall not: (i) engage in spidering, “screen scraping,” “database scraping,” harvesting of e-mail addresses, wireless addresses or other contact or personal information, or any other automatic means of accessing, logging-in or registering on the Website or for any services or features offered on or through the Website, or obtaining lists of users or obtaining or accessing other information or features on, from or through the Website or the services offered on or through the Website, including, without limitation, any information residing on any server or database connected to the Website or any services offered on or through the Website; (ii) obtain or attempt to obtain unauthorized access to computer systems, materials, information or any services made available on or through the Website through any means; (iii) use the Website or the services made available on or through the Website in any manner with the intent to interrupt, damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or such services, including, without limitation, sending mass unsolicited messages or “flooding,” “spamming,” or “crashing” any systems; (iv) use the Website or the Website’s services or features in violation of Pipe Exchange’s or any third party’s intellectual property or other proprietary or legal rights; or (v) use the Website or the Website’s services in violation of any applicable law.  You further agree that you may not attempt (or encourage or support anyone else’s attempt) to circumvent, reverse engineer, decrypt, or otherwise alter or interfere with the Website or the Website’s services, or any content thereof, or make unauthorized use thereof.  You agree that you will not use the Website in any manner that could damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Website or interfere with any other party’s use and enjoyment of the Website. You may not obtain or attempt to obtain any materials or information through any means not intentionally made publicly available or provided for through the Website. Pipe Exchange will investigate any alleged violations and will cooperate with law enforcement agencies in their investigations.

THIRD-PARTY CONTENT

Some of the information and material available through the Website are provided to Pipe Exchange by third parties (“Third-Party Material”). In some instances, the source of the Third-Party Material is identified. Third-Party Material is provided for your convenience only and Pipe Exchange does not endorse these materials or the parties who supply them to us. Pipe Exchange does not warrant or represent that these Third-Party Materials are current, accurate or reliable.

COPYRIGHT AGENT

We respect the intellectual property rights of others, and require that the people who use the Website do the same.  If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please forward the following information to Pipe Exchange’s Copyright Agent, designated as such pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. § 512(c)(2), named below:

  • Your address, telephone number, and email address;
  • A description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
  • A description of where the alleged infringing material is located;
  • A statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law;
  • An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest; and
  • A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your Notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.
  • For all email submissions please include the subject line: DMCA Takedown Request.

 

Pipe Exchange has adopted a policy of terminating, in appropriate circumstances, accounts of users of the services or the Website who are deemed to have repeatedly uploaded content that infringes the intellectual property rights of others.

 

Copyright Agent:

Pipe Exchange Legal

c/o Pipe Exchange LLC

14025 West Road.
Suite #100
Houston, TX 77041

Phone: + (713) 934-9480

Email: dmca@pipexch.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THE WEBSITE AND ITS CONTENT ARE PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE” BASIS, WITHOUT REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER. PIPE EXCHANGE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTIES RIGHTS, AND THE WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE. PIPE EXCHANGE MAKES NO WARRANTIES ABOUT THE ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, COMPLETENESS, OR TIMELINESS OF THE MATERIAL, SERVICES, SOFTWARE, TEXT, GRAPHICS, AND LINKS FOUND OR CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE. PIPE EXCHANGE DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE WEBSITE, THE CONTENT, OR ITS SERVERS ARE FREE OF VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS. YOU UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YOU OBTAIN MATERIAL THROUGH THE USE OF THE WEBSITE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS.

ALL MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THE WEBSITE IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY, HAS NOT BEEN INDEPENDENTLY VERIFIED, HAS NOT BEEN RECOMMENDED BY ANY FEDERAL OR STATE REGULATORY AUTHORITY AND MAY CONTAIN ERRORS OR OMISSIONS OF MATERIAL INFORMATION. THE MATERIAL AND INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THE WEBSITE SHOULD NOT, THEREFORE, BE USED OR RELIED UPON FOR ANY SPECIFIC REASON OR APPLICATION WITHOUT INDEPENDENT COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF ITS ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, SUITABILITY AND APPLICABILITY. ANYONE MAKING USE OF THE MATERIAL DOES SO AT HIS/HER/ITS OWN SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE RISK AND ASSUMES ANY AND ALL ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DAMAGE OR LIABILITY RESULTING FROM SUCH USE.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

IN NO EVENT SHALL PIPE EXCHANGE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES, LOST PROFITS, OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) RESULTING FROM THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE MATERIAL ON THE WEBSITE OR SITES LINKED TO THE WEBSITE, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT PIPE EXCHANGE IS ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

TERMINATION

Pipe Exchange may terminate, change, suspend or discontinue any aspect of the Website or the Website’s services at any time.  Pipe Exchange may restrict, suspend or terminate your access to the Website and/or its services if we believe you are in breach of our terms and conditions or applicable law, or for any other reason without notice or liability.  Pipe Exchange maintains a policy that provides for the termination in appropriate circumstances of the Website use privileges of users who are repeat infringers of intellectual property rights.

USER’S REMEDY

If you are dissatisfied with any portion of the Website or with any of these Terms of Use, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue using the Website.

GOVERNING LAW AND VENUE

These Terms of Use and the relationship between you and Pipe Exchange shall be governed by the laws of the United States and the State of Florida without regard to its conflict of law provisions. You hereby irrevocably submit and consent to the personal and exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located within Miami-Dade County, Florida and agree that any cause of action that may arise under these Terms of Use and all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of the Website shall be commenced and be heard in the appropriate court in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The failure of Pipe Exchange to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms of Use shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any provision of these Terms of Use is found by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties nevertheless agree that the court should endeavor to give effect to the parties’ intentions as reflected in the provision, and the other provisions of these Terms of Use remain in full force and effect. 

QUESTIONS ABOUT TERMS OF USE

If you have any questions regarding these Terms of Use, please either:

Send an email to sales@pipexch.com

Write to Pipe Exchange at the following address:

14025 West Road

Suite 100

Houston, TX 77041

 

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